It has been seen for the case of half-wave rectifier circuit that it converts the positive half signal at the output side and blocks the negative half cycle of the input. For the case of Full-wave rectifier circuit both positive and negative half cycles will be appeared across the output in the form of uni-direction. Figure 1 showing the basic building block diagram for full-wave rectifier circuit.
Let understand the working of full-wave rectifier (FWR) circuit. Figure 2 showing the basic circuit schematic of FWR circuit. A step-down transformer taking the input from AC (220 V @ 60/50 Hz) supply and stepping down this supply either into 12 V or 15 depends on your design. After bridge rectifier circuit is connected. This circuit consists on four silicon diodes.
Let see the diodes operation for positive and negative half cycle one by one.
Positive half cycle
Since diodes work only on for forward biased mode and stop working for reverse biased mode. Therefore, D1 and D4 will be ON and act like as a short circuit, while D2 and D3 will be OFF and act like as an open circuit. Figure 3 demonstrating the working of D1 and D4.
Negative half cycle
For negative half cycle, diodes D3 and D4 will be ON and act like as a short circuit. D1 and D4 will be OFF and act like as an open circuit. Figure 4 demonstrating the clear picture of FWR circuit for negative half-cycle.
I’m also attaching FWR circuit simulation video. This video will help you to understand the working of full-wave rectifier circuit as well as how to simulate the FWR circuit in PSpice software.