Clipper-Circuits: Introduction to clipper circuits

Clipper Circuits:

Clipper circuits are electronics-based circuits which clip the input sinusoidal signal either on positive side or negative side without distorting the remaining waveform. All of these circuits based on diodes and we already familiar with the working of diode. So, there are following type of clipper circuits:

  • Positive Clipper 
  • Negative Clipper
  • Positive biased Clipper
  •  Negative biased Clipper
  •  Dual biased Clipper. 

      Let understand each circuit on by one. 

Positive Clipper Circuit and Its Working

The circuit diagram for positive clipper circuit as shown in figure 1. A sinusoidal signal is applied to the input side of this circuit. When positive half-cycle appears across the diode, it will turn on because of forward biasing. Assume an ideal case for diode, so there will no voltage drop across the output. When negative half-cycle appears across the diode, it will be OFF because of reverse biasing. In this case, the whole input signal will appear across the output. 

Figure 1: Circuit schematic of positive clipper.

Negative Clipper Circuit and Its working

A negative clipper circuit shown in figure 2. For this case, negative half-cycle signal will be clipped and positive half-cycle will be appeared across the output. Figure 2 showing the clear understanding of working diode. Since for positive half-cycle diode is reverse biased and acting like as an open switch and whole positive-half will appear across the output. 

Figure 2: Circuit schematic of negative clipper.

Working of Positive Clipper circuit with positive DC biased.

When positive dc supply is connected with the positive clipper circuit, then this circuit is known as positive dc biased clipper circuit. The circuit configuration shown in figure 3. Let understand the working of this circuit for positive and negative half cycle.

Positive half-cycle

For positive half cycle, the diode is ON and working as a close switch. So the whole positive half cycle will flow through the circuit except the dc voltage and diode voltage drop. This drop will appear across the output.  The expression for voltage appearing across the output as

                                                                                Vout = 0.7+Vdc

Negative half-cycle

For negative half cycle, the diode is OFF and working as an open switch. So, the whole negative half cycle will appear across the output.

Figure 3: Circuit schematic of biased positive clipper.

Working of Negative Clipper circuit with negative DC biased.

When negative dc supply is connected with the negative
clipper circuit, then this circuit is known as negative dc biased clipper
circuit. The circuit configuration shown in figure 4. Let understand the
working of this circuit for positive and negative half cycle.

 Positive half-cycle

For positive half cycle, the diode is OFF and working as an open switch. So, the whole positive half cycle will appear across the output.

Negative half-cycle

 For negative half cycle, the diode is ON and working as a close switch. So, the whole negative half cycle will flow through the circuit except the dc voltage and diode voltage drop. This drop will appear across the output.  The expression for voltage appearing across the output as

                                                                                    Vout = -(0.7+Vdc)

Figure 4: Circuit schematic of biased negative clipper.

Dual Biasing of Clippers Circuit

In this case both positive and negative half cycle will be clipped. The circuit schematic shown in figure 5. This circuit is demonstrating how positive and negative side is clipping. 

Figure 5: Circuit schematic for dual biasing.

Applications of Clipper circuits

There are following applications of clipper circuits.

  • Wave shaping 
  • Voltage limiters 
  • Protection 
  • FM transmitter

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